韩国网友问:中国能否在不失去文化认同的情况下采用韩语字母表?
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  • 韩国网友问:中国能否在不失去文化认同的情况下采用韩语字母表?
    发布日期:2022-08-23 14:20    点击次数:57

    众所周知,语言是文字的载体,中华文明之所以源远流长,汉字发挥了不可替代的作用,在民国时期,一些社会精英曾因抱着和封建社会彻底决裂的心态而支持废除汉字,一名韩国人同样提出了类似的问题:中国能否放弃汉字,然后在不失去文化认同的情况下采用韩语字母表?这个我问题引起各国专家和网友的热议,我们看看他们的观点。

    问题:中国能否在不失去文化认同的情况下采用韩语字母表?

    越南网友金海韵的回答

    The word \"対牛彈琴\" is very interesting. In Chinese, it is always used to ridicule people for not looking at the object when they speak. It is like playing Mozart's piano music to the deaf. I am not insulting the deaf, but I have such a feeling when I see this problem.

    “対牛彈琴”这个词语很有意思,在汉语中,它总是用来讥讽人讲话时不看对象,就像对聋人弹奏莫扎特的钢琴曲一样,我不是侮辱聋人,但看到这个问题我就是有这样一种感觉。

    Some people say that if people receive language education in early childhood, they can generally master 5-7 languages. I learned this language in Vietnam. I am still grateful to my parents for sending me to Chinese school when I was very young. At that time, I had to learn Vietnamese, French and English. This is the first time I heard that learning Chinese will affect my academic performance.

    有人说,如果人类在儿童早期接受语言教育,他们一般可以掌握5-7种语言。我是在越南学习这门语言的,我仍然很感激父母在我很小的时候就把我送到了中文学校,那时,我还得学越南语、法语和英语,这是我第一次听说学习汉语会影响我的学习成绩。

    Most of the Chinese students I know have similar performance in most universities. As you said, Chinese students enjoy the reputation of \"excellent students\". Generally speaking, most of the Chinese immigrants are engaged in jobs highly recognized by professionals such as engineers, accountants, programmers, designers and architects.

    我认识的大多数中国学生在大多数大学的表现都差不多,正如你所说,中国学生享有“优等生”的声誉,一般来说,中国移民大多从事工程师、会计师、程序员、设计师、建筑师等专业人士所高度认可的工作。

    For me, Chinese is not only a means of communication, but also an art that should be cherished. This is essential to understand our heritage and the indispensable literature in history. I watched a video on YouTube. A six-year-old girl can recite the Three Character Classic, the thousand character text, the book of changes, and the Yellow Emperor's Internal Classic... She can not only recite smoothly, but also her interpretation and understanding even surprised the hosts with higher education.

    对我来说,汉语不仅是一种交流手段,也是一门应该珍惜的艺术。这对于了解我们的遗产和历史上不可或缺的文献至关重要。我在YouTube上看了一段视频,一个六岁女孩会背诵三字經、千字文、 易經、黃帝內經... 她不仅能够流畅背诵,而且她的解释和理解甚至让受过高等教育的主持人感到惊讶。

    She also wrote a poem in Chinese on the spot to praise the two hosts. So please don't spread rumors that Chinese is difficult to learn. Chinese is not more difficult than learning any other language. In some basic Latin languages, I still can't tell the difference between a chair and a table.

    她还当场用中文写了一首诗,赞美两位主持人。所以请不要散布汉语难学的谣言,汉语并不比学习任何其他语言都难。在一些拉丁语基础语言中,我仍然无法确定椅子和桌子的区别。

    If you don't learn, you don't know how to behave. If you don't learn when you are young, what should you do when you are old If it is expressed in other languages, it needs more words to explain such a simple concept. In Chinese, it can be expressed beautifully with 12 words.

    “人不學 不知理 幼不學 老何為 ”翻译成英语就是“如果一个人不学习,就不知道如何行事为人,如果你年轻时不学习,当你年老后该怎么办?”如果用其他语言表述,解释这样一个简单的概念需要更多的词语,而在汉语中,用12个词语就可以表达得非常漂亮。

    Do you know how many Chinese poems and literature are worth appreciating only through the art of Chinese characters? When you have the opportunity to learn this beautiful language, try to understand its connotation rather than question its existence. Many of my Western friends can also say this, and their Chinese is also very fluent.

    你知道有多少中国诗歌、文学只有通过汉字艺术才值得欣赏吗?当你有机会学习这门美丽的语言时,尽力认识她的内涵,而不是质疑它的存在。我的许多西方朋友也会这么说,他们的中文也很流利。

    日本网友柯毕定夫的回答

    There are several main problems in converting Chinese into Roman letters:

    将中文转换为罗马字母有以下几个主要问题:

    1. Written Chinese has existed in various written forms in the past 3000 years. Turning to the alphabet means that Chinese people will abandon their 3000 year cultural heritage and history. Considering the strong historical and cultural identity of most Chinese people, this is unlikely, which also means that Chinese people will lose most of their written records, and there is no obvious benefit. This is like asking Americans to abandon the declaration of independence, the bill of rights and the founding ideals of the United States. Then the question becomes, \"if you take these things away, will they still be Americans?\" This will be a very serious issue.

    1.书面汉语在过去3000年的历史中以各种书写形式存在,转向字母表意味着中国人将背弃自己3000年的文化遗产和历史。考虑到大多数中国人浓厚的历史和文化认同,这是不太可能的,这也意味着中国人将失去大部分自己的书面记录,而且没有明显的好处。这就像要求美国人背弃《独立宣言》、《权利法案》和美国的建国理想。然后问题就变成了:“如果你把这些东西拿走,他们还是美国人吗?”这将是一个非常严肃的问题。

    2. There are many homonyms in spoken Chinese (words with the same pronunciation but different characters), and the only way to distinguish the differences in written forms is to read the characters. Another written syllable language, such as Korean, does not capture these differences in meaning, which means that the richness, historicity and meaning of the written language have been lost, which also means that these letters and syllable forms have lost the entire meaning layer.

    2.汉语口语中有很多同音词(发音相同但用不同的字符表示的字词),而辨别书面形式差异的唯一方法是阅读字符。另一种书面音节语言,如韩语,并没有捕捉到这些意义上的差异,这意味着书面语言的丰富性、历史性和意义都丧失了,这同样意味着这些字母和音节形式失去了整个意义层。

    3. In the first half of the 20th century, some people thought that the difficulty of Chinese writing meant that the literacy rate was low, but the fact proved that it was not the case. The literacy rate in Chinese Mainland, Taiwan and Hong Kong is very high. All three places use Chinese. This problem has been proved to be an education problem, not a Chinese learning problem. If there is a good education policy, the literacy rate of Chinese people will be higher than that of foreigners, even compared with the developed economies in Europe and North America that use Latin alphabet.

    3.在二十世纪上半叶,一些人认为汉语写作的困难意味着识字率较,事实证明并非如此。中国大陆、台湾地区和香港的识字率都很高,这三个地方都使用中文书写。这个问题已经被证明是一个教育问题,而不是一个中文学习的问题。如果有一个好的教育政策,中国人的识字率会高于外国人,即使与使用拉丁字母的欧洲和北美发达经济体相比也是如此。

    Rubinstein (Professor of economics and Language Department of Cambridge University) published a series of 5 papers, discussing why some languages are more effective in promoting economic growth than other languages. Compared with spoken Chinese, 三轮摩托 Chinese characters meet almost all standards. They have internal linear logic, which makes them humanized, informative and descriptive.

    Rubinstein(剑桥大学经济学和语言系教授)发表了一系列共5篇论文,探讨了为什么某些语言比其他语言更有效地促进经济增长,与口语相比,汉字符合近乎所有标准。它们具有内部线性逻辑,使其具有人性化、信息丰富、描述性强的特点。

    You may know that modern Japanese is pictographic. The Japanese did try to turn to the pure phonetic system of European style, but when they realized that the system was \"inefficient\" in reflecting Japanese spoken language, conveying meaning and nuances, and was not logical, they gave up the character system.

    你可能知道现代日语是象形的,日本人确实也曾试图转向欧洲风格的纯语音系统,但当他们意识到该系统在反映日语口语、传达含义和细微差别方面“效率”较低,且逻辑性较差时,他们放弃了该文字系统。

    德国网友弗兰克?佩尔内的回答

    Because there is no effective alternative, I believe there will not be any in the near future.

    因为没有有效的替代方案,我相信在不久的将来也不会有。

    By the way, China tried romanization of Chinese characters in the 1960s. Experts' views are very similar to yours. They think that Chinese characters are bad traditions from the old times. By switching to the Roman alphabet, it will be easy to learn, read faster and write more clearly.

    顺便说一句,中国曾在六十年代尝试过汉字的罗马化,专家们的观点和你非常相似,他们认为汉字是来自旧时代的坏传统,通过切换到罗马字母表,它将易于学习,读得更快,写得更清楚。

    However, the result is not optimistic, and several linguists have specially done this work. However, these linguists are unable to invent a romanization method acceptable to both sides, that is, the author and the reader recognize the original meaning of the written sentence. The most successful is the current Hanyu Pinyin, but its writing and reading speed is much slower, and it is very easy to have pronunciation conflicts and misunderstandings.

    然而,结果并不乐观,几位语言学专家专门来做这项工作,然而,这些语言学家无法发明出一种双方都能接受的罗马化方法,即作者和读者都承认所写句子的原始含义。最成功的是目前的汉语拼音,但它的书写和阅读速度要慢得多,而且极易出现发音冲突和误解。

    Although in the old Chinese culture, only China retained the writing of Chinese characters, while other member countries (South Korea, Japan and Vietnam) more or less abandoned the writing of Chinese characters, this is because among the various East Asian languages, only Chinese and Vietnamese are rich in tone. When switching to the spelling system, the same pronunciation may produce a wide range of different meanings. Considering the trouble directly caused by pronunciation and the energy and time it takes to find out the correct meaning of this spelling by referring to the context, reading may not be faster, and their transformation may fail at this level.

    尽管在旧时代的汉语文化中只有中国保留了汉字书写,而其他成员国(韩国、日本、越南)或多或少放弃了汉字书写,但这是因为在各种东亚语言中只有汉语和越南语是富含声调的,当切换到拼写系统时,相同的发音可能会产生广泛的不同含义。考虑到发音直接带来的麻烦,以及通过参考上下文来找出这种拼写的正确含义所花费的精力和时间,阅读可能不一定更快,他们的改造在这一层面上可能是失败的。

    On the other hand, Japanese and Korean are tonal languages. Therefore, the likelihood of pronunciation conflict is much lower. However, since both languages have a large number of Chinese loanwords, if the original Chinese characters are used to replace Japanese Hiragana or Korean, the reading speed is still much faster. This is why Chinese characters are still flourishing in Japan and have recently been revived in Korea.

    另一方面,日语和韩语是无调性的语言。因此,发音冲突的可能性要低得多。由于这两种语言都保存了大量的汉语借词,如果用中文原版汉字代替日文平假名或韩文,阅读速度仍然要快得多。这就是为什么汉字在日本依然繁荣,并且最近在韩国复兴的原因。

    The reasons why the Vietnamese abolished Chinese characters are somewhat complicated. First, it was completely colonized by Europeans. If the documents written in their own language are incomprehensible or easy to find in the dictionary, it will be a troublesome thing for a group of different races to govern Vietnam.

    越南人废除汉字的原因有点复杂。首先,它完全被欧洲人殖民。如果用他们自己的语言编写的文件无法理解或很方便在字典中查找,那么对于一个种族不同的群体来说,治理越南将是一件麻烦的事。

    Second, Vietnamese use of Chinese characters is already for phonology rather than meaning. In other words, they have to some extent regarded it as an alphabet, which carries sounds, rather than meaning like hieroglyphs. It doesn't make much sense to use such complex characters just for spelling.

    其次,越南使用汉字已经是为了音韵而不是意义。也就是说,他们已经在某种程度上把它当作一个字母表,它承载着发音,而不是像象形文字一样,承载着意义。仅仅为了拼写而使用如此复杂的字符没有多大意义。

    In short, there is no other choice but Chinese characters. Even I admit that Chinese characters may indeed bring a burden to beginners (I can't write quickly and correctly when I was 12 years old) and affect the Chinese people's logical reasoning and lifestyle, but it is irreplaceable.

    总之,除汉字外没有别的选择,即使是我也承认,汉字确实可能会给初学者带来负担(我自己在12岁的时候也不能快速正确地书写),并且会影响中国人的逻辑推理方式和生活方式,可它就是无可替代。

    中国网友谢长镇的回答

    There are more than 292 living dialects in China. Mandarin is the \"national\" language, but Wu language covers (many people have never heard of) 80 million people, as well as Cantonese (the main dialect group in Guangdong and Hong Kong), Taiwanese and Fujian Minnan and Shanghai dialect.

    中国有超过292种活的方言。普通话是“国家”语言,但吴语覆盖(许多人从未听说过)8000万人口,还有广东话(广东、香港地区的主要方言群)、台湾和福建的闽南语、上海话等。

    About 5000 years ago, the first Chinese characters were formed. These Chinese characters were represented by stylized graphics representing animals or objects. However, with the development and needs of social forms, pictophonetic characters began to appear. Only 4% of all Chinese characters came from ideographic characters, and the other 96% were pictophonetic characters composed of \"radicals\", representing the meaning of original sounds and phonetic components. This is why Chinese is relatively easy to adapt to the tide of the Internet era.

    大约5000年前,第一个汉字形成了,这些汉字是用代表动物或物体等程式化图形表示的,然而,随着社会形态的发展和需要,形声字开始出现,所有汉字中只有4%来自表意字,另外96%是由“部首”组成的形声字,表示原音的含义和语音成分,这就是为什么中文相对容易适应互联网时代的浪潮。

    象形文字

    However, the first Emperor Qin Shihuang realized that if he allowed this to go unchecked, the country would be as fragmented as Europe, which meant that many language groups could not communicate with each other. The emperor could not change the spoken language because many languages were too deeply rooted, but they could regulate the written language. The formation of such norms means that no matter whether you speak Cantonese or Shanghai dialect, you can communicate with each other, which makes the so-called China and Chinese civilization rise.

    然而,第一代皇帝—秦始皇意识到,如果他允许这一点放任自流,这个国家将像欧洲那样四分五裂,也意味着许多语言群体无法相互交流。皇帝无法改变口头语言,因为许多语言过于根深蒂固,但他们可以规范书面语言。这种规范的形成意味着无论你说广东话还是上海话,你都可以相互交流,这使得所谓的中国和中华文明得以兴起。

    As an analytical language, Chinese has very weak morpheme rules, but this is not the weakness of Chinese. Most linguists admit that language has lost its grammatical markers in the process of development. Many European languages can prove this hypothesis to be correct. However, linguists are still debating whether analytical language is the best form of language. All languages will eventually become analytical language, or we are actually in the cycle of inflectional change to analytical language and then back to inflectional change.

    作为一种分析型语言,汉语的语素规则很弱,但这不是汉语的弱点。大多数语言学家承认语言在发展过程中失去了语法标记,许多欧洲语言可以证明这一假设是正确的。然而,语言学家们仍在争论,分析型语言是否是语言的最佳形式,所有语言最终都将成为分析型语言,或者我们实际上处于从屈折变化到分析型语言,然后再回到屈折变化语言的循环中。

    In addition, Chinese characters are not restricted by grammar, and only serve for semantics. At first, each Chinese character corresponded to a unique meaning in ancient Chinese (for example, [骠骢骓骐骥骏骕駃驵驹骟骝骖騑騧骙骎骋骒] refers to a variety of horses, and one character responds to a horse that cannot be mixed with another character). Due to the influence of Mongolia and the expansion of Chinese characters, the Chinese began to combine Chinese characters together to express the meaning of a single Chinese character.

    此外,汉字不受语法限制,只为语义服务。最初,每个汉字都对应着古代汉语中一个独特的含义(如[骠骢骓骐骥骏骕駃驵驹骟骝骖騑騧骙骎骋骒] 是指各种马, 并且一个字符响应于一种不能被另一个字符混合使用的马)。由于受蒙古的影响和汉字扩展的问题,中国人开始将汉字组合在一起,以表达单个汉字所表达的意思。

    The characters should be grouped into one word to ensure the smooth and highly repeated use of characters in daily life, such as cross and literacy(十字和识字), lion and lice(狮子和虱子), so that people do not need to remember a large number of characters like English. In addition, the construction of Chinese characters is also based on ordinary simple Chinese characters, by slightly changing and arranging their spatial structure.

    要将字符分组成一个单词,以确保在日常生活中顺利地高度重复使用字符,如十字和识字,狮子和虱子,这样人们就不需要像英语那样记住大量字符。此外,汉字的构造方式也是基于普通的简单汉字,通过稍微改变和排列它们的空间结构。

    口,日, 白, 田, 目, 旦, all of these have different meanings, but there are obvious subtle changes in writing. This means that only when people can write some basic Chinese characters can they learn more Chinese characters on this basis. For example, based on Zhan, Zhan, Zhan, Zhan, felt and Zhan are written, but different meanings (radical) are expressed by changing the radicals of Chinese characters. The radicals in Chinese characters are limited, so there are five fixed ways of spatial structure.

    口, 日, 白, 田, 目, 旦, 所有这些都有不同的含义,但在写法上有明显的细微变化。这意味着,只有当人们能够书写一些基本的汉字,这样他们才能在此基础上学习更多的汉字。例如基于占,写出占, 沾, 站, 佔, 毡, 战,但是通过改变汉字的部首来表达不同的意思(偏旁部首).,汉字中的部首是有限的,因此空间结构有5种固定方式。

    Do you know how brilliant Chinese characters are now? Chinese characters have made great efforts to popularize complex basic concepts in an acceptable manner, even allowing children to learn difficult concepts at a very young age.

    你知道汉字现在有多辉煌吗?汉字在以可接受的方式普及复杂的基本概念方面做了很大的努力,甚至让儿童在很小的时候就可以学习困难的概念。

    The construction of Chinese characters and the words based on Chinese characters provide a way for people to carry out logical reasoning. In my opinion, this is not an obstacle, but an advantage.

    汉字的构造和基于汉字的词语为人们进行逻辑推理提供了一种途径,在我看来,这不是一个障碍,而是一个优势。



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